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CCNA Interview Questions

We use networking for doing connection with the network or for operating the network. The process of creating and using wired or wireless network to exchange information, ideas, files, and other communication.

The rules that are defined for transferring the data between two devices, is called protocol. The protocol shows us how the data between the two devices is transferred.

OSI reference model is a conceptual framework that shows us how the data is transferred and received on the network. It understands the relationships of transmission.

There are 7 Different layers in OSI model with their different functionalities.
• Layer 1 – Physical Layer
• Layer 2 – Data Link Layer
• Layer 3 – Network Layer
• Layer 4 – Transport Layer
• Layer 5 – Session Layer
• Layer 6 – Presentation Layer
• Layer 7- Application Layer

We use Switch to receive the signal to create the frame, Switch forwards the packets between different LAN segments. When the data is sent to the data link layer or network layer of the OSI model then switch takes the packet control.

When we send a packet the signal is enabled that reads the destination address and forwards the frame to the appropriate frame.

Routing means the data that is going to be transferred on which path is decided. The device on which routing is done it is called a Router.

Switch:
We use Switch to receive the signal to create the frame, Switch forwards the packets between different LAN segments. When the data is sent to the data link layer or network layer of the OSI model then switch takes the packet control.

Routers
The router is the networking device that helps to transfer Data packets to the different computer networks with the help of the connection with LAN or WAN.
Hub
If anything comes in the hub then it sends it to others and it is least expensive and least complicated. Hub has only one collision domain and a single broadcast domain.

Half duplex means the transmission of information is done only from one side.
Example: Walkie-talkie
While in full duplex, the transmission is done from both of the sides.
Example: Conversation on the telephone.

When the network node is carrying more data than it’s capacity then the loss of the data packets and information happens on the node is called Network Congestion.

LAN
LAN stands for Local Area Network. LAN contains the computers and devices connected with each other and the Connections must be of the high speed in LAN.
Example: Ethernet

MAN
MAN stands for Metropolitan Area Network. MAN contains the networks connected widely in different buildings of a city. Example: The IUB Network.

WAN
WAN stands for Wide Area Network. WAN contains the networks that are limited to only one organization or an enterprise that can be accessed by the public too. It may connect several LANs too. Connection in WAN must be of high speed and it is expensive.
Example: Internet.

Internet Protocol Is 32 bits to 128 bits for a device on TCP/IP protocol. An IP address is declared unique for communication.
The IP address has 2 main functions which include Host and Location address. It has two versions IPv4 and IPv6.

The transfer of the data can be done in three ways:
• Simplex
• Half-duplex
• Full-duplex

Unicast: Unicast means the exchange of the messages between a single source and a single destination. Here, the sender sends the packets with the address of the receivers address so it can go there directly.

Broadcast: Broadcast means the exchange of the data between one sender and possible multiple receivers. Broadcasting can only be done on the private network because the public internet can’t handle such a big amount of unrelated and unnecessary data.

Multicast: Multicast means the data of exchange between one sender and multiple receivers. Multicast contains the network settings that determine our receiving clients and sort of broadcasting.

Anycast: Anycast means the exchange of the message is between one host to another host. Anycast uses TCP and UDP Protocol. Here, the copy of each data packet is sent to the host that requests.

Main two types of networks in CCNA
• Server-based network
• Peer-to-Peer network

Subnet means the subdivision of an IP address like it is divided into two parts the network prefix and the host identifier.

We can’t assign an IP address to layer2.

PING stands for Packet Internet Groper. It is used to test the reachability of a host on an Internet protocol network. Ping is sent when any data is sent via the network through IP addresses it will ping the receiver.

There are different 5 classes and its ranges of IP address.
Class Range
A 1-126
B 127-191
C 192-223
D 224-239
E 240-254

Private IP:
A private IP id used only on LAN network
Public IP:
Public IP is used all over the internet.

Topology means the arrangement of the elements in a specific order.
The various types of Topology include:
• Bus
• Star
• Mesh
• Ring
• Hybrid
• Tree

MAC address stands for Media Access Control address. MAC Is stored in the ROM and uniquely defined in the Media Control layer in the network architecture.

Virtual Lan network is used to make a separate domain in a single switch.

We can use Enabled, enable secret, auxiliary(AUX), console and virtual terminal(VTY).

We can use 3 types of memories used in Cisco routers:
• Flash memory – It is electronically erasable and is a programmable memory chip that store system IOS.
• RAM – RAM stores the configuration file that is executed. When the router is restarted or shut down RAM loses its information.
• NVRAM – NVRAM Stores startup file and IOS reads this file when the router is started.
• ROM – Read Only Memory stores the information when the router is shut down or restarted to run the instructions for POST diagnostics.

ARP stands for Address Resolution Protocol which is used to map an IP address to a physical machine.
RARP stands for Reverse Address Resolution Protocol that is used to map MAC address to the IP address.

Mainly three types of cable are used in routing:
• Straight cable – (switch-router)
• Cross cable – (PC-PC, switch-switch)
• Rollover cable – (Console port to computer)

The network from where the data packets are sent from the source to the destination is called Logical topology. We can see it as well.

Static IP is never changed over time and it is reserved statically while dynamic IP addresses are changed over time when we connect to the internet.

The peer to peer networks are distributed and decentralized network where individual network nodes like Peers in the network work as suppliers and consumers of the resources.

IEEE 802.11 is the IEEE standard for wireless networking.

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